The current study was conducted on jujube fruits, Chibchab cultivar that were collected from a commercial orchard in the Al-Harthah region, Basra, south of Iraq for the 2018-2019 growing season in order to improve the storage ability of fruits by treating them with chitosan. The fruits were treated with three concentrations of chitosan (0, 1 and 2%) by immersing them in, then packed with perforated polyethylene bags (8 holes per bag, the diameter of the hole is 4 mm). The bag expanded to 1 kg of fruits then stored at 4°C in the refrigerator. A factorial experiment was designed using a complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. The most important results showed that the fruits treated with 2% chitosan outperformed the rest of the fruits with the least weight loss and the highest concentration of vitamin C, while the untreated fruits recorded the highest percentage of total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and the highest weight loss.
A field experiment for the 2019-2020 agricultural season was conducted at two location (Hamdaniya, Talkif) to study the response of the yield and its components to three varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) for split application of nitrogen fertilizer and the flag leaf removal The experiment was applied using a randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) according to a factorial experiment system inside a splitter, and with three blocks. The treatment of split of nitrogen fertilizer occupied the Main plots and the treatment of the agent of removing the flag leaf and varieties the Sub plots. The experiment included three factors, the first factor was three levels of split nitrogen fertilizer according to the prescribed recommendation (80 kg N / ha), namely (1/4 the amount determined when planting + 34/ the amount at the beginning of the tillering and 1/3 the amount determined when planting + 2/3 the amount at the beginning of the tillering and 1/2 the amount determined when planting + 1/2 the amount at the beginning of the tillering) , The second factor is flag leaf removal (not removed the flag leaf, flag leaf removal) The third factor is three varieties of wheat which are (Sham6,Adana99,Rashidiya).The results showed that treatment split the first nitrogen fertilizer the second were surpassed in characteristics (Plant height, area of the flag leaf , index of chlorophyll content of the flag leaf, and all the attributes of the yield and its components), With the exception of the weight of 1000 grains that was surpassed to treatment split the third nitrogen fertilizer, the removal of the flag leaf caused a decrease in the height of the plant and all the yield characteristics and its components except for the characteristic of number of spikes/m2, While the removal treatment surpassed the protein percentage, Regarding the varieties, the variety, Sham6 , and the variety Adana99, surpassed in all the vegetative growth characteristics, yield characteristics and its components For two locations experience, With the exception of the number of spikes m2, The protein percentage was surpassed than the Rashidiya variety in the Talkif location only. Also the Rashidiya variety surpassed the weight of 1000 grams in the Hamdaniya location only. We conclude the important role of nitrogen split in compensating for the deficiency in the yield and its components when removal the flag leaf, as the second split and the first split overtook the third split by overlapping with the treatment of removing the flag leaf in the characteristic of the grain yield, and therefore we recommend the first split and the second split (1/4 + 3/4 And 1/3 + 2/3) as it is partially compensated for the yield and its components when the flag leaf is damaged or if it is exposed to other conditions that cause it to fall off (insect or pathological injury).
The Rind is most valuable raw materials in food industries for preparing so many food items. A two factors experiment was done for the value addition of by-product through jelly preparation. Factor A: Sugar Concentrations per 500 g fruit; S1:200 g sugar; S2:250 g sugar; S3:300 g sugar and Factor B: Preservatives per 500 g fruit; P0:no preservative; P1:sodium benzoate (1.4 g); P2:potassium metabisulphite (0.8 g). All the samples were kept in pre-sterilized glass bottles and stored at room temperature. Moisture content, pH, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid and organoleptical (color, appearance, sweetness, stickiness, flavor and overall acceptability) test were done. A decreasing trend was recorded in moisture content (35.51 to 26.01%), pH (4.36 to 3.31), ascorbic acid content (1.88 to 0.79 mg/100 g) while an increasing trend was recorded in titrable acidity (0.06 to 0.26%) and TSS (61.00 to 73.01 brix) with increased storage period. Results obtained from statistical analysis showed that different sugar concentrations and preservation had significant effect on physio-chemical and organoleptic characteristics. After 90 days of storage, considering laboratory test, qualitative and organoleptic test, S3P2 was found the best. The quality parameters of S3P2 viz. moisture content (27.01%), pH (4.10), TSS (69%), TA (0.25%), vitamin C (1.57 mg/100 g). This suggested that 500g jackfruit rind +300g sugar+0.8g potassium metabisulphite was the promising formulation for the preparation of good quality of jackfruit jelly.
The germination phase is one of the most sensitive to the effects caused by the stress steps. The present work deals with the impact of water deficit expressed by lowering the water potential on germination percentage and the average germination time in three species of Bromus: B. madritensis L., B. lanceolatus Roth. and B. rubens L. Water stress was simulated using polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000), according to different levels of water potential (- 0, 03; - 0, 7; - 1; -1,6 M Pa). The results obtained showed that water stress has a negative effect on the germination potential of the three species; the germinative behavior of these species under water stress, differs according to the species and the concentration of the PEG 6000 applied for most studied variables. Indeed, a maximum of 100%, 90% and 86% was achieved respectively for B. madritensis, B. rubens, B. lanceolatus to the water potential 0 MPa. At the lowest water potential (-1.6 MPa), the percentage of germination was slightly reduced, and was about 100%, 80%, 83.33%, respectively for the three species. Concerning the average germination time, there are no differences between the species studied, it lengthens slightly depending on the intensity of the water stress. In the light of these results, differences in sensitivity between the species appear and allow them to be classified according to the following decreasing tolerance sequence: B. madritensis> B. lanceolatus> B. rubens.
Root-knot nematodes are dangerous pests that cause losses of many crops and its management generally by using chemical nematicides which caused contamination and have serious effects on all living organisms and environment. Consequently, this study was conducted to control Meloidogyne incognita in potato plants, cultivated in root-knot nematode infested soil, by using bioactive compounds extracted from Chlorella vulgaris against Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions. The algal isolate was identified using morphological and molecular characterization by using ITS rDNA. The content of Nitrogen (N), phosphorus(P), Calcium (Ca), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Heavy metal, Protein and Carbohydrate in extract of the Chlorella vulgaris biomass was determined. The results indicated that the C. vulgaris extract had significant increments in growth parameters and significant decreases of nematode galls and egg masses. In contrast, the control plants had the lowest values in all criteria. As well as, data indicated that C. vulgaris was more effective in controlling nematode or in enhancing plant resistance against nematode as shown at most nematode parameters, especially the nematode galls, which resulted in 71.4 and 61.3% decreases in both treatments of potato plants treated with C. vulgaris alone or with potato plants infected by M. incognita, respectively. It had insignificant differences compared the nematicide. The chemical analysis of C. vulgaris extract revealed the presence of high amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, carbohydrates and proteins with 4.02, 3.24, 3.23, 39.7, and 19.7%, respectively. Therefore, using C. vulgaris extract as a bioagent against root-knot nematodes is recommended, especially in sustainable agriculture. Additionally, the algal could increase soil maintaining and improves its fertility a combined with strengthens resistance against nematode invasion. In collectively, C. vulgaris extract it could be considered safe and eco-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides.
Our experimentation mainly consists of evaluating the effectiveness of the herbicides used(Mustang 360 SE, Zoom WG, Topik 80 EC, Grand star 75 DF, Brumby 80 Ec, Axial 045 EC et Hussar evolution EC) on weed flora and to know the best herbicide that can give good yields. This experimental study was carried out during the agricultural years 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 on the site of the Experimental Station Agricultural of the Technical Institute of Field Crops (SEA-ITGC) of Sétif. This study allows identifying 28 weed species in bread wheat, barley, and durum wheat.The obtained results showed that Calendula arvensis L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Ranunculus arvensis L. et Papaver rhoeas L. were among the most important annual dicotyledon weeds in each of the cereals. and Hordeummurinum L., Avena sterilis L., Bromus rigidus Roth., Lolium multiflrum Lamk. and Phalaris paradoxal L. were among the most important monocotyledon species. Herbicide application at the early tillage stage of crops reduced the dry weight of broadleaf weeds by 60% to 90% and of monocot weeds by 55% to 85%. Early chemical weed control of non-irrigated cereals in arid and semi-arid regions is necessary to increase grain and straw yields.
Forty -five genotypes of wheat to determine the disease resistance of some wheat genotypes and to select disease resistant lines for future wheat breeding programs. The analysis of variance for 45 wheat genotypes revealed highly significant variation for all quantitative traits related parameters. Phenotypic coefficient of variance was slightly higher than the genotypic coefficient of variance for all studied traits, indicating presence of environmental influence on the expression of these characters. High heritability in broad sense was found in all studied traits. Highly positive significant correlation values between grain yield/plot and each of number of spikes/m2, number of kernels/spike and 1000-kernel weight. Highly positive significant correlations were detected between 1000- kernels weight and number of spikes/m2 and number of kernels/spike. Significant and high negative significant correlations between grain yield and each of yellow rust, leaf rust and powdery mildew. Yellow rust had negative correlations with number of spikes/m2, number of kernels/spike and 1000-kernel weight, respectively. Leaf rust had higher values of number of spikes/m2, number of kernels/spike in addition, 1000-kernel weight, respectively. Po Powdery mildew had negative effect on yield components with correlation values of the number of spikes/m2, number of kernels/spike and 1000-kernel weight. Disease severity response was variable among the tested genotypes. Eleven wheat genotypes have displayed high levels of adult plant resistance to diseases under study, they should be characterized as the completely resistant lines, Meanwhile, 8 genotypes exhibited susceptible disease reaction; on the other hand wheat genotypes 5-promissing lines and commercial variety Gemmiza-9 were moderately resistant to moderately susceptible or susceptible reactions but they can retard or delay the disease onset or development and show low to moderate levels of final rust severity (less than 30%) during the two growing seasons of the study. These wheat promising lines could be characterized or identified as partially resistant.
A survey for incidence of dry bubble disease and collection of different isolates was carried out in February, 2016 from selected regions of Northern India, where white button mushroom are grown. Among all the districts surveyed, highest incidence (65%) of dry bubble disease was recorded in Ayodhya (Faizabad) district of Uttar Pradesh. Incidence was ranged between 25 to 65% in surveyed regions of Northern India.
Introduction: In this paper, a survey was conducted in the Jashpur District 8 CD Block, Pathalgaon, Bagicha, Farsabahar, Jashpur, Kunkuri, Kansabel, Manora, Duldula. There is many Tribal people live together, which have many traditional Knowledge. The study notes that in the district, several plant species belonging to different families were used by 'herbal healers' for various diseases.
Methods: Semi-structured interview in the current report with local villagers, medicine men and Vaidya individuals. Plant material is gathered during the field trip and labeled with plant photos with the appropriate local and botanical name. Plant samples are collected for documentation.
Results: The study notes that in the area, 21 plant species belonging to 15 families were used by 'herbal healers' for the various diseases. Different plant sections, followed by stem, root, bark, fruit, leaves, flower and whole plant, are used for the treatment of different diseases.
Conclusion: There is a requirement of documentary for the traditional information about ethno-medicinal plants that will test in various experimental models using modern scientific methodologies. Further study is required to determine the effectiveness of these medicinal plant products in treating various diseases in humans.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) production in warm and humid regions is limited by foliar diseases, seedlings and grain mold, which can be caused by a complex of pathogenic and opportunistic fungi. Anthracnose and downy mildew diseases are one of the most devastating fungal diseases which limits the production and productivity of the crop. Exserohilum turcicum is an important pathogen of both sorghum causing sorghum leaf blight. Because the same pathogen can infect and cause major losses for two of the most important grain crops. Sorghum grain mold, particularly Fusarium and Curvularia grain mold, are important on improved, short and medium duration sorghum cultivars worldwide that mature during the rainy season in humid, tropical and subtropical climates. Usually the grain mold, is used to describe the diseased appearance of sorghum grain resulting from infection by one or more pathogenic or saprophytic fungi. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widely known to form a symbiosis with higher plants and enhance plant adaptation to a series of environmental stresses. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is considered a promising alternative feedstock for bioalcohol production because of its sugar-rich stalk and high biomass. The large diversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with sorghum, some of which, known for their use in agriculture, could be used as biofertilizers for sustainable production of sorghum.
Nanoremediation using nanoparticles can address environmental concerns as well as promise a sustained crop production by target specificity and low toxicity. It has enough potential to deal with the environment pollution and sustained food production with an ecofriendly approach. Such intelligent nanosystems with controlled release pattern while coming into contact with the contaminant as by using nanosensor can resolve bioaccumulation of chemical residues in food chain via plants with better usability and stability. However, there are some aspects that are needed to be focused upon for example toxicity level of nanoparticales, improvement in their application and environmental impact. Assessment of toxicity level, knowledge of mode of action and their residues impact on food chain and human health are some of the burning areas which needs more researches.
Bio-manures are the organic supplements prepared from the products that are obtained from desi cow and being used since ancient periods. In Southern Asia, organic farming was well developed from ancient ‘Vedic’ period. In Sanskrit, Panchgavya depicts the blend of five different products, obtained from cow. Whereas, Jeevamruth is also prepared from cow’s dung and urine, but other ingredients are differ from Panchgavya. Both organic supplements act as liquid manures that have been intensively used in organic farming. Both Panchgavya and Jeevamruth contain beneficial microorganisms, growth hormones, essential macro and micronutrients, crucial for the physiological growth and development of plants. Panchgavya and Jeevamruth are rich in quality properties, which are excellent source of organic carbon, biomass, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and lot of other micronutrients that are essential for the metabolic activity of plants. In spite of this, either supplement are intensively used in organic agriculture to enhance the soil fertility, soil productivity, organic carbon and microbial activity in soil that assists to improve the soil health. These bio-stimulants are also used for treatment of seeds to protect from various seed borne diseases and insect pests, which improves the better germination of seeds and seedlings vigor. Thus, the application of either organic input have potential for the sustainable crop production system, that assist to boost in food production and provides nutritional security for human as well as save the soil health and environment. However, combine application of both liquid manures will give enhance results for both crops and soil.
Biotechnology in the Agriculture sector covers indigenous plant and animal breeding to the choice of individuals and hybridization including technically complicated techniques of genetic engineering. The beneficiaries are farmers, manufacturers and consumers. Ethiopia has been regarded as one among the ancient countries of the world and also richer in natural resources and wide diversity in the crop has been recorded. Plant biotechnology portrays immense capacity for manipulation of crops to conclude with the use of least inputs, increased yield and productivity. It is a smart choice and very much necessary for the introduction of latest biotechnological tools to Ethiopian agricultural sector. Careful examination of crop varieties of Ethiopia through the usage of modern tools and techniques of biotechnology could certainly assist in unraveling genes that harness traits of colossal economic significance. Quite a few research and academic institutes of Ethiopia are conducting basic, advanced and related fields of research in biotechnology with limitations in tools, techniques and management. This review intends to update the information on status of research, opportunities and challenges in plant biotechnology and it will help the researchers, academicians, industrialists and students to know about the current status of Ethiopian plant biotechnology. Besides, it will be helpful for the policy maker to guide them further for plans and developments.
Chestnut blight is a plant disease caused by fungus. The pathogen responsible for chestnut blight is Cryphonectria Parasitica. The entry of the fungus to the plants is through wounds and grows under the bark. Biocontrol, chemical control, and sanitation are some practices followed to control chestnut blight. This bibliometric analysis had been conducted to understand the active authors, organizations, journals, and countries involved in the research domain of “Chestnut blight”. All published articles related to “Chestnut blight” from “Scopus”, were analyzed using the VOS viewer to develop analysis tables and visualization maps. This article had set the objective to consolidate the literature regarding Chestnut blight and also to find out the trends related to the same. Acta Horticulturae is the journal with the highest number of publications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America is the journal with the highest citation, co-authorship linkages, and the highest average citation. Ecological Monographs is the journal with the highest average citations. The most active country is the USA and Austria is the most productive country with the highest average citation. Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, of Cornell University, is the most active organization with the highest number of publications and citations. Department of Molecular Oncology and Virology, Roche Institute of Molecular Biology of Roche Research Center are the most productive organizations in this research domain with the highest number of average citations. Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute is the organization with the highest co-authorship linkages. The most active author is Nuss D.L. and the productive author with the highest average citation is Nowacki G.J.
Genome sequence of detection for fewer infertility and development in the genome variable methods has opened up the incredible effects of elevating characteristics of the organisms. Pathway to new genome mutations, for example zinc finger nucleases (ZFNAS), transcription activator-like effectors nucleases (TALENS) records have made it easier molecular experts to focus more on any quality of interest. However, these processes are expensive and tedious as they add difficult steps that require protein synthesis. Not at all like the instruments that change things, modifications of CRISPR/ cas9 type includes basic planning techniques and integration strategies, with the same Cas9 has been found clearly assessable for use by various targeted RNAs at various locations in the genome. After confirmation of the concept show in production plants including the critical CRISPR/Cas9 module several Cas9 proteins types have been modified which are being used in production plants to improve quality and yield (e.g Nmcas9, SaCas9 Snd stCas9). The study summarizes the sum of the most accessible methods investing biotechnologists to achieve plant development using CRISPR/Cas9 based genome modification devices and further introduces the experiments in which CRISPR/Cas9 was used in improving the tolerance for biotic and abiotic stress. The use of these methods leads to in the development of non transgenic or non-modified plants with appropriate potential that can add to the potential expansion under biotic and abiotic stress conditions.