This work aims to reveal the reasons of crystallization of forming agent of agglomerated cake (FAAC) at low temperature in order to improve the method of the FAAC storage at low temperature and enhance the promotion of the mud cake to agglomerated cake (MTA) method of cementing of oil and gas wells. It has been proved that the MTA method can improve the cementing quality of oil-gas well. However, FAAC used in this method tends to crystallize at low temperature, thus limiting its application and promotion. In this work, the comparative observation experiments combining with ion chromatography test are used to figure out the possible reasons for the crystallization of FAAC. It turns out that the low temperature is the main cause of crystallization of FAAC, where the precipitate is sodium sulfate hydrate. Further analysis suggests that the common-ion effect has a great influence on the stability of FAAC. Particularly, this research indicates the existence of strong hydrogen bond effect between sodium sulfate and sodium metasilicate, which is conducive to keeping the FAAC solution to stay stable at low temperature.
The purpose of the study was to establish the role of Traditional Leaders in Conflict Management between Pastoralist Communities and Commercial Agriculture Farmers in the study area. A mix of descriptive and explanatory research designs was employed. Simple random sampling method was used to select study participants. From the total target population of 850 where pastoralists were 800 and Commercial agricultural farmers were 50; 10(20%) of the sampling frame were Commercial agricultural farmers and 80(10%) were pastoralists resulting in a total sample of 90 respondents. However, only 85 respondents participated in the study. Data was collected using questionnaires and structured interview schedules and desk review was used to gather secondary data. Data analysis was done using frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations. Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation was used to test the hypotheses. Qualitative data was analyzed using Content Analysis (CA) technique. Results from the findings indicate that there was a weak but positive and insignificant relationship between consultative meetings and conflict management [P (83) = 0.060, P>0.05]. There was also a strong positive and significant relationship between reconciliation and conflict management [P (83) = 0.775, P <0.05]. Further, the study revealed a strong, positive and significant relationship between negotiation and conflict management [P (83) = 0.896, P<0.05]. The relationship between mediation and conflict management was strong, positive and significant [P (83) = 0.785, P<0.05]. Based on the findings, the study recommends that capacity building through education pertaining to laws and regulations guiding the sustainable land use be conducted to different stakeholders involved in conflict management in the study area. The government should implement land use planning, and traditional leaders together with all the stakeholders should initiate and maintain regular or annual meetings in which the commercial farmers and pastoralists would table issues concerning their activities in order to avoid conflict between them in the area. Further, it is recommended that Commercial Farmers and pastoralists should form more cooperatives and associations that can represent their interest and enable them to speak as a group and that future similar researches should include other conflict management factors that have not been dealt with in the current study.
The purpose of this study was to determine Zambian primary school pupils’ understanding of the concept of integers. To accomplish this aim, 149 pupils were randomly selected from ten primary schools in Kapiri Mposhi district of central Zambia to participate in a pencil and paper test on the topic integers. The test was designed to measure the level of conceptual knowledge of the pupils related to integers. This study is part of a wide ongoing study aimed at understanding Zambian pupils knowledge of fractions and integers. Findings of the current study revealed conceptual gaps in the knowledge levels of the pupils. Participants exhibited difficulties with negative integers. In terms of gender, it was revealed that male participants performed better than their female counterparts. These results have implications on the performance of pupils in national examinations as these gaps are likely to manifest during national examinations. Zambian teachers are expected to use the findings of this study to try out teaching strategies that will promote conceptual understanding of integer concepts.
Energy drinks attract customers with their colourful displays and exotic, eye-catching designs. These caffeine-boosted drinks are one of the fastest growing categories in the beverage industry. Though seemingly beneficial, many children even up to six years-old are consuming these beverages, and often face severe consequences with potentially deadly side effects. This study examines the synergistic effects of energy drinks on the parameters derived from action potentials of Lumbricus terrestris, by which the effects of energy drinks on the nervous system could be evaluated. L. terrestris was chosen because its nervous system is similar to that of a human. The earthworm's nervous system is managed by its cerebral ganglion, to which the ventral nerve cord is attached and runs through the body. This study examined the reproducibility, sensitivity and synergisms of parameters using regression analysis and action potential parameters between the single and combined mixture of energy drinks. In conclusion, the reproducibility of the system was proved to be moderate, confirmed by multiple trials under identical conditions. As for sensitivity, though the coefficients from the regression analysis that was fitted to the linearity were somewhat variable, their mean values in all the studies were 0.56320, and could be summarized as having a moderately linear relationship. The parameters from combined mixtures were greater than those from a single energy drink, which proved the synergistic effects of the parameters we evaluated in this study using the drink products. The regression slope between the parameters and injection volumes was used as an indicator of possible purtabation by nervous activity. The larger the changes of the parameters, the more impact on the nervous system could be brought about. As a conclusion, the mixture of 5 Hour Energy with Red Bull looked to cause negative synergistic effects, while the mixture of Monster Juice with Red Bull demonstrated more positive synergistic effects. Further study should be warranted to interpret the meanings of specific parameters and the related responses for the action potentials.
The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been extensively used to determine the extent of adoption and use of digital technologies in research. The model addresses the technical shortfalls of users by confronting some undesirable behavioural and perceptual traits which discourage the acceptance and usage of digital technologies. This study, therefore, sought to students’ acceptance and use of digital technologies for the purpose of enhancing their learning. Inquiring from students how they use their digital devices and further rate their level of digital competencies (skills and knowledge) spurred the researcher to adopt an instructional delivery system through the application of the TAM to enable students adopt, accept and incorporate these technologies into their learning in order to make learning flexible and self-paced. The quantitative method was used to answer the research questions that guided this study. This study aimed at applying the TAM to provide a descriptive analysis on how students adopt and use digital technologies in their remote locations. The study also sought to use the model to address students’ perceptions and attitudes toward the use of digital technologies. The study revealed that respondents had developed positive attitudes and right perceptions toward the use of digital technologies during lessons because they gained more understanding and insight through the lively course content they offer. Respondents now have the belief that the intervention has helped them to develop the zeal to adopt and use digital technologies to enhance their learning.